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Ch’al To’ Yini’lo’, Frog Brings Rain

By Patricia Hruby Powell and Peter A. Thomas, Salina Bookshelf


First People’s village sits at the foot of a mountain. All of a sudden, a fire consumes the mountain! Who will help put out the fire before it reaches the village? As the fire comes dangerously close, First Woman asks all the animals to help. But who can bring enough water to put out the whole mountain, and how will they do it? The animals and the people have some serious problem solving to do.

Guidelines for Philosophical Discussion

This story comes from Native American culture. There are many Native American tribes, and each tribe has many stories that have been told since long ago to teach important lessons. Frog Brings Rain is a retelling of a Navajo folktale. While depicting the origins of rain, this story touches upon topics debated in ethics. A fire blazes on a mountain and it is headed right for a village. "First Woman" asks various animals to help put out the fire. Some refuse and some attempt to put out the fire and fail. Finally, Crane and Frog cooperate to put out the fire and the village is saved. Frog Brings Rain offers a unique perspective in terms of questions regarding moral consideration of animals and bravery.

Speciesism is the notion that when humans view themselves as more valuable than other species, they practice a kind of prejudice that presents humans as the superior species and operates in a similar manner as classism, racism, and sexism. A different view is that humans are naturally superior to animals by virtue of rational capacities. Some with this view believe that by virtue of distinctly human capacities, we are responsible for being stewards of the environment and protecting animals. Others who view humans as superior to animals hold that animals’ lack of moral capacity means they have no moral worth, and therefore it is not morally wrong to dominate animals. The view put forth in Frog Brings Rain suggests that humans and animals are equals. In fact, the animals in this story come to the aid of the people by utilizing distinctly non-human capacities (natural flight, etc.). To this end, it may be argued that the animals in this story display superiority to humans.

Frog Brings Rain demonstrates two possible ways of interpreting bravery. One interpretation is possible when a small bird gets burned trying to put out a fire on a mountain. First woman calls him “brave.” What are the properties of bravery used as criteria for determining the bird is brave? It could be facing danger, it could be facing fear, perhaps going against the odds, or going against the grain and offering to contribute when others refused. Of all these qualities of bravery, are any necessary? Bravery can arguably be demonstrated without any one of these qualities.

A different way in which animals in Frog Brings Rain can be viewed as brave is in terms of standing their ground when they were asked to do something they felt was too dangerous to do. Perhaps the animals that refused to bring water to the mountain demonstrate bravery by staying behind to protect their homes and families. Frog Brings Rain offers a way to understand the essence of bravery from many angles.

Questions for Philosophical Discussion

Rights and Responsibility

Frog and Crane put out the fire on the mountain.

  1. How did Frog and Crane put out the fire?
  2. What did they do that the people couldn't do?
  3. What are some things that some people can do and other people can't do?
  4. If you can do something to help someone, should you do it? Why or why not?
  5. What if it is dangerous like putting out the fire in the story?


Three birds refuse to bring water. Robin Redbreast agrees, but gets burned trying, and fails to put out the fire because there wasn’t enough water. After, First Woman says, “You are brave. We will call you Tsidii Biteel Halchi’I, Robin Redbreast”

  1. How did Robin Redbreast get her name?
  2. What does she do that is brave?
  3. Why is that brave?
  4. Was she scared?
  5. How do you know?
  6. Can you be brave and scared at the same time?
  7. Have you ever been scared and brave? Examples.
  8. Do you have to do something scary to be brave?


All the other animals had reasons for not bringing water. Nighthawk said he would hurt his eyes and Beaver said he would lose his home.

  1. Imagine if these things could happen to you. If someone asked you to do something and you could get hurt or lose your home from it, would you do it? Why/Why not?
  2. Were these animals standing up for them selves or being cowards when they said no?
  3. Can standing up for your self be brave? Explain.

This book module deals with multiculturalism and ethics, specifically bravery. It is suited to intermediate philosophers. You can buy this book on Amazon.

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