Fantastic Mr. Fox
By Roald Dahl, Puffin Books
When Mr Fox needs to feed his family, he usually just raids the storehouses of one of his vile neighbors, Boggis, Bunce, and Bean. All three were farmers, and all were particularly nasty and mean people. But when Boggis, Bunce and Bean finally get fed up with Mr Fox stealing their chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys, they decide that Mr Fox, and anyone who happens to be in the way, must be destroyed. But no matter what they do, how much they obsess, or how much damage they do, that clever Mr Fox seems to be able to stay one step ahead.
Guidelines for Philosophical Discussion
By Jayme Johnson
Fantastic Mr Fox is a thrilling story of one brave father fox's attempts to keep his family safe and fed. Unfortunately for Mr. Fox, providing both food and safety seem to run headlong into each other when Mr. Fox's food sources--the three meanest nastiest farmers around--decide that they will literally move mountains to see Mr. Fox and his family killed. What makes this such a good story for philosophical discussion is that it creates a wonderful scenario for a thought experiment. The nature of the thought experiment is to test our ethical intuitions, to see what motivates us in making moral judgements.
To lay out this thought experiment we begin with the facts as presented in the story. The salient facts are as follows: Boggis, Bunce and Bean each earn their living by farming in the ways that they do. Whether it be poultry or cider, growing and producing these goods is their livelihood. Another fact about them is that they are all three vile and nasty people. A fact about Mr. Fox is that he must eat, and feed his family. Another fact is that his source of food comes from what he steals from Boggis, Bunce, and Bean. The three farmers are enraged with the fact Mr. Fox steals from them and decide to kill him at all cost. Mr. Fox manages to continue stealing from them, and even comes up with new and better ways to rob them while they are distracted by their obsession with destroying him.
Explained in this way, the story sounds like one in which Mr. Fox is a career criminal thief, and even though Boggis, Bunce, and Bean are mean, they are being victimized nonetheless. Perhaps being constantly stolen from makes them mean! But that is not the feeling that the reader comes away with from the story whatsoever. In fact, as the story is told, Mr. Fox is a brave and clever hero, who is somehow right and good for stealing from the three farmers. How can this be? The answer seems to have something to do with our moral intuitions. Our intuitions tell us that Mr. Fox should steal to feed his family. And when the three farmers are intent on killing Mr. Fox and his family, we as the reader want them to escape, and want for them to be well. But our intuitions seem to betray us. For they also tell us that it is wrong to steal things from others. So how can Mr. Fox be both morally right and morally wrong every time he steals from the farmers? This seems like a practical, if not logical contradiction. So how do we resolve this? We ask ourselves two questions: Why, in general, do we seem collectively to believe that it is wrong to steal? What about what Mr. Fox does makes it seem to us as if he is doing something right here?
This problem is alluded to in the book, in the chapter entitled Badger has Doubts. When Badger asks Mr. Fox is all this stealing doesn't bother him, he is worried that what they are doing is wrong. Mr. Fox's reply was to point out that anyone would steal food whose kids were starving to death, and that presently, the three farmers were destroying both of their homes and threatening the lives of their own children, and many other families lives as well. So if they were stealing, it was from murderous creeps, and for a good cause. Who wouldn't do the same? Hence, a starting point for the discussion our moral intuitions might begin with Mr. Fox's own declared attempt to justify his behavior.
Questions for Philosophical Discussion
By Jayme Johnson
Mr. Fox steals food from Boggis, Bunce, and Bean to feed himself and his family
Boggis, Bunce, and Bean vow to destroy Mr. Fox at all costs.
As a result of having to dig deeper into the ground, Mr. Fox, and his friends dig tunnels to the food cellars of each of the farmers, and steal lots and lots of things. Badger begins to have doubts about the heist.
The animals have a feast.