By Peter Catalanotto, Simon & Schuster
When her teacher announces an art contest, Emily uncertainly wonders, "Does the judge know which is better?" When the judge rejects Emily's picture of a dog beause she hates dogs, Emily stops painting. Before long, though, Emily's classmates, teacher, and Emily herself realize that "best" can rarely be measured or judged.
Guidelines for Philosophical Discussion
By Kate Vigour, revised by Lindsay Kurahara
Emily’s Art by Peter Catalanotto is an important children’s book because it raises questions that include: What is art? Who is an artist? What criteria should be used to judge good art? How is art created? How is art viewed and interpreted?
In the prologue of the book, there is a conversation between the teacher, Ms. Fair, and her students. The first philosophical question set comes from this part of the book and addresses contests and subjectivity versus objectivity. The questions should allow the students to discuss the differences between subjective things and objective things while comparing an art contest and a science contest. With a science contest, participants have to include a hypothesis, an experimental methods section, along with results and conclusion sections. By comparison, there is usually not criteria for an art contest. Because there are criteria in a science contest it is easier to judge and not much opinion or emotion is involved. An art contest is difficult to judge because it deals with perception, interpretation, personal biases against subject matter, colors, and/or straight lines, etc.
The next set of questions explores the aesthetics of philosophy by discussing the definition of art, how to determine if Emily is making art, and if she’s an artist. The philosophical question of “what is art” has been around for years and is still a debate for modern-day philosophers. With these questions, a conversation can be generated to discuss whether things like music, dancing, and singing are considered art. Is a blue square on a piece of paper artwork? Does art have to be man-made? Who gets to decide whether or not something is art? Further, what makes an artist? Must one be famous to be considered a “real” artist? If I say that I am an artist, does that mean that I am? If not, then what would I have to do to really be considered an artist?
The third and fourth question sets discuss the issue of judging in “Emily’s Art.” Moral philosophy is brought into question when the children debate whether or not the judging was fair in this book. The judge of the art contest makes the declaration that she is the judge because her cousin is married to an artist. This is not a necessary or sufficient reason for being the judge of an art contest. It doesn‘t matter who her cousin is married to or illustrate what kind of knowledge she has about art. This declaration brings up the issues of how a judge should be chosen, and also what kind of artwork should win a contest. The judge shouldn’t use her own prejudices against the subject matter to determine the ‘best’ painting as she does. How should one judge artwork - is there ever a fair way to judge, or will bias always be involved?
The fifth question set discusses the meaning of the phrase “to hurt someone’s heart.” When Emily says this to the nurse, was she being literal or metaphoric? At this point the students can go around in a circle and talk briefly about times that they can remember their heart hurting. What does it mean to have your heart be hurt? What was really going on with Emily, and why did her heart hurt? Is it worst to have your heart hurt, or to hurt another part of your body like your leg? What are the differences between these two pains, and how does the ‘healing’ process differ?
The final philosophic topic allows the students to explore the issue of the artist’s intention versus the viewer’s interpretation. When the thinks Emily’s painting is of a rabbit, she thinks Emily’s painting is the best. Once she is told Emily’s painting is really of a dog, of which the judge is afraid, she chooses another painting as the best. One of the wonderful aspects about art is that it is hard to define and another is that it will never be viewed or interpreted the same way twice. Art does not have to be interpreted exactly as the artist intended it. Also, maybe an artist shouldn’t even have an intention. One thought about art is that it is the product of an emotional exploration. If this is true, then the artist cannot work on a piece with a final product in mind. Otherwise, it would not be true art, according to some philosophers. This story raises many important philosophical issues about art and these issues should be discussed.
Questions for Philosophical Discussion
The nature of contests
In this story, Emily’s school has an art contest and the students discuss different kinds of races.
What is art?
In this story, Emily’s artwork is not chosen as the winner of the art contest.
Non-realistic vs. realistic painting
In one of Emily’s paintings she has four mothers. She said it was because her mother is so busy in the morning.
Who gets to judge?
In order for a winner to be chosen in the art contest, there has to be a judge. The judge in Emily’s Art is the principal’s mother. The judge says, “My cousin is married to an artist.” That’s why she’s the judge.
The nature of feelings
Emily goes to the nurse when she’s not feeling well. The nurse asks her what’s wrong.
The nature interpretation of art
The judge loved Emily’s picture when she thought it was a rabbit but when Emily’s teacher told the judge it was a dog, she changed her mind and chose another picture.